Miscarriage is otherwise known as abortion. Miscarriage is divided into spontaneous ( which happens by itself) or induced ( medical or surgical ). It is the loss of embryo/fetus before 20 weeks of gestation. Spontaneous miscarriage is the most common pregnancy loss in women of childbearing age group. 80% of miscarriages happen usually in the first trimester.
There are no enough evidences to prove that exercise, work and sexual intercourse have role in pregnancy loss. There are other main and significant reasons like chromosomal problems, Hormonal imbalance, uterine causes, chronic illnesses like thyroid problems, diabetes mellitus, TB and other infections. Spotting or bleeding, pain abdomen, cramps in the lower back, buttocks and genital region are the most common symptoms of miscarriage. Miscarriages are of different types according to the nature of symptoms.
Types of miscarriage:
1. Threatened miscarriage
In this condition, there is spotting or bleeding with closed internal os. Along with bleeding there will be cramping in the lower back or abdomen. This type of miscarriage can be managed by proper treatment like bed rest and medications to support the pregnancy.
2. Inevitable miscarriage
Here bleeding is associated with cramping pain, with an opened cervical os. Miscarriage is inevitable as the os is opened, membranes are ruptured and process of expulsion of embryo or fetus already started. This type of miscarriage cannot be treated or revert back because inspite of treatment soon it will lead to incomplete or complete miscarriage.
3. Incomplete miscarriage
Miscarriage can be called as incomplete when there is bleeding and the cervix is dilated and when most of the products of conception already expelled out of the uterus but few tissues of pregnancy still remain within the uterus.
If the body does not expel it naturally, then medical or surgical help is indicated.
4. Complete miscarriage
In this condition, bleeding subsided quickly. The embryo/product of conception emptied completely out from the uterus. A completed miscarriage can only be confirmed by ultrasonography.
5. Missed miscarriage
Here the death of the embryo has occurred, but not expelled by the uterus. There is an absence of pregnancy in woman who was confirmed earlier as pregnant. Miscarriage happened without the knowledge of the woman.
The reason for missed miscarriage is unknown. The signs are absence of pregnancy on ultrasonography and loss of heartbeat of the fetus.
6. Recurrent miscarriage
When there is more than 3 consecutive miscarriages, then it can be called as recurrent miscarriage. If there is the previous history of 2 miscarriages, then the chances of miscarriage in the next pregnancy is very high.
Stages of miscarriage
The physical process of miscarriage can vary according to the size and duration of pregnancy, and the loss of pregnancy happened naturally or by any medical or surgical management.
- Early loss: Miscarriage in early weeks of pregnancy is just like periods. There will be cramps and pain abdomen. This is because the uterus contracts to expel the contents out, just like in labour.
- Later loss: : In later stages of pregnancy, the woman have to go through the recognizable labour process ( mini labour ) that is expulsion of foetus followed by expulsion of placenta. Thus, they may need help from hospital.
Wait for the body to act, or medications can be adopted to abort the products of pregnancy in this stage. If it is not working, then surgical methods can be used.
Physical recovery from miscarriage will take few days to 1 or 2 weeks. Within 4-8 weeks the period will return. Emotional balance and support is necessary to overcome the situation.